ESP is an abbreviation standing for Electronic Stability Program while ESC is an abbreviation standing for Electronic Stability Control. Both of these systems aim at producing the same results, that is, give the driver more stability in controlling and steering a car when traction is lost. Loss of traction refers to the loss of sufficient grip between the wheels of a car and the road surface leading to skidding.

When ESC detects loss of steering control, it automatically applies the brakes to help “steer” the vehicle where the driver intends to go. Braking is automatically applied to wheels individually, such as the outer front wheel to counter oversteer or the inner rear wheel to counter understeer.

Some ESC systems also reduce engine power until control is regained. ESC does not improve a vehicle’s cornering performance; instead, it helps to minimize the loss of control.
The electronic stability program supports the driver in nearly all critical driving situations. It is composed of and complements the functions of the antilock braking system (ABS) and the traction control system. It detects vehicle skidding movements (loss of traction) and actively counteracts them. This considerably improves driving safety.

The system recognizes the desired direction of travel and speed sensors on each wheel measure wheel speed. At the same time, sensors measure vehicle rotation around its vertical axis, as well as lateral acceleration. From this data, the control unit calculates the actual movement of the vehicle, comparing it 25 times per second with the desired direction of travel. If the values do not correspond, the system reacts in an instant, without any action on the part of the driver. It reduces engine power in order to restore vehicle stability. If that is not sufficient, then it additionally brakes individual wheels. The resulting rotary movement of the vehicle counteracts the skidding movement – within the limits of the laws of physics, and the vehicle remains safely on the desired course. The ESP system offers value-added functions that increases comfort and safety.

It is now a policy by Vehicle Manufacturing Regulators to have these safety systems installed in vehicles to help counteract the dangers of miscalculated and unprecedented Physic motions and at the same time help reduce road carnage.